A screw by definition is not a bolt. A bolt passes through a hole of a larger diameter than its thread and is held in place by a nut or similar device. It is not designed to be turned. A screw is a shaft with a helical groove. The thread essentially mates with the helix in the material it is turned through. The screw may be used with a part that has a mating helix already placed in the material (called a tapped hole) or may be a self tapping screw which creates the helix as it is turned in the material.
The glossary below gives you the basic information on various types screws and bolts
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